About this project

About the project

The project aims to explore valuable insights into Nigerian households’ living conditions and contribute to informed decision-making for the country’s development. The NESG Household Survey 2018 provides a comprehensive dataset on household living conditions in Nigeria. This data is crucial for shaping policies and monitoring Nigeria’s progress. We were to use this dataset to create visualizations and reports highlighting key findings and analytical insights.


The survey collected approximately 16,000 responses, constituting a sample of the Nigerian population. The dataset encompassed roughly 257 columns and over 16,000 rows. This implies a substantial amount of information, underscoring the importance of meticulously refining the datasets and selecting pivotal features to generate actionable insights. The dataset is available for download here. A practice I consistently adhere to involves initially obtaining a concise survey of the datasets, which starts to shape my understanding of the potential outcomes achievable from the dataset, aligned with the intended objectives or goals. Subsequently, I record all conceivable insights that can be derived. My approach doesn’t immediately delve into data cleaning and visualization; instead, it follows this sequence: Briefing and General Overview >> Data Cleaning >> Visualization.


Data cleaning: This process involved removing unwanted columns and renaming column variables to ensure that the text appearing on the X-axis, Y-axis, and legend would be relatively short, clear, and easily understandable to anyone. This renaming also made it easier to apply the unpivot function to related columns, which could then be merged into a visualization chart. The objectives of the project were a major guide in the data cleaning process. They helped me identify the key features needed for the visualization process in order to extract possible solutions for Nigeria.

Data visualization: To accurately capture the information provided in the dataset to meet the objectives, I categorized my results into four sections: Demographics, Economic Status, Perception of Governance, and Analysis of Tax-Fuel Impact. Despite the division of visualizations into these categories, they are interconnected, with insights providing further details on these connections. Subsequently, the visualization stage assists me in filtering out achievable and realistic insights from the ones I initially outlined during the briefing.

Data storytelling / Insights:

Demographics: The demographic analysis reveals the prevalence of a youthful population between the ages of 18 and 29, offering potential advantages in fostering a vibrant and innovative workforce/human resources. Almost half of the respondents have their highest level of education in secondary school. This could be attributed to the observation that over 3,000 respondents were between the ages of 18 and 24, and most might still be receiving educational training in a tertiary institution. This assumption was further reflected in the employment status analysis, indicating that more people between the ages of 18 and 24 were unemployed. The majority of the respondents have fairly good living conditions, and the household living condition is directly related to household income (the higher the income, the better the living condition).

Economic status: The income distribution reveals disparities: around 4,000 individuals earn between N 20,000 and N 40,000; over 2,000 people earn less than N 20,000; fewer than 500 people earn between N 100,000 and N 300,000; and fewer than 100 people earn more than N 300,000. There is a direct relationship between household income and the level of education, with more individuals in the high-income category holding a university education, while most of the low-income earners have a secondary school education as their highest level of education. Professionals, large business owners, and some civil servants fall within the higher-income spectrum, whereas those with informal education are in the low-income spectrum. Approximately 94% of the respondents own a mobile phone, with more than half of them owning a generator, and about 83% owning a car.

Governance perception: The majority of the respondents are dissatisfied with the basic amenities in their communities, such as clinics, schools, water, security, bus services, and electricity. It is quite alarming that about 25% of the respondents reported that they do not have bus services in their community. Furthermore, over 10,000 of the respondents doubt the government’s commitment to serving the public’s interests.

Tax-fuel impact: More than half of the respondents hold the opinion that they are not required to pay taxes. This could be attributed to the data indicating that a majority of people are dissatisfied with the basic amenities and question the government’s commitment. Half of the respondents trust the government, while the other half do not. It’s interesting to note that the data also reveals that 51% of the respondents are willing to pay higher taxes for better services.

At the time this data was collected, the fuel price had increased to N145. The received responses indicated that this increase had a significant impact on over 5,000 people, compelling them to adjust their activities to reduce fuel consumption.

Actionable insights for the government

Nigeria’s youth-rich population holds immense potential for driving innovation and economic expansion. The strong link between education and household income underscores the need for government investment in education. Creating a conducive learning environment, equipped with the necessary resources, is vital for fostering growth and development. Additionally, supporting educational organizations and NGOs through grants or favorable policies can accelerate progress. Higher education levels correlate with higher incomes, resulting in increased tax revenue, economic growth, innovation, entrepreneurship, savings, investments, and talent attraction. Educated individuals with higher incomes can also contribute to research and development efforts, driving advancements in science, technology, and various industries. To bridge the income disparity gap, targeted initiatives providing access to quality education, vocational training, and skill development are crucial.

Addressing inadequate basic amenities is paramount, as their deficiencies directly impede business operations and hinder overall productivity. Communities without reliable bus services face hindrances to various activities including public transportation, goods movement, and deliveries. Businesses dependent on electricity, water supply, and security suffer setbacks, curtailing prospects for economic growth. These challenges further cascade into reduced industrial processes, productivity, and elevated crime rates that dissuade potential investors. Neglect of clinic services deters healthcare professionals from serving underserved areas, leading to critical shortages in vital locations.

Inadequate clinics struggle to deliver essential services like vaccinations and disease prevention, worsening health burdens for both individuals and healthcare systems. Preventable illnesses and deaths due to inadequate clinic amenities lead to the loss of productive human capital, impeding comprehensive economic growth. While insufficient basic amenities lay the groundwork for a negative tax attitude, the data also signifies respondents’ willingness to contribute higher taxes in exchange for improved services, bridging taxation, and public welfare. The role of public-private partnerships in enhancing service delivery is also crucial.

A pivotal insight from the analysis spotlights the potential for leveraging high mobile phone ownership to ignite digital innovation and entrepreneurship. Investments in mobile technologies can spark economic growth, job creation, and public service advancement. Mobile phones serve as gateways for small and medium enterprises to access broader markets and tap into expanded customer bases, augmenting trade. By leveraging mobile technology, income groups ranging from less than N20,000 to N100,000 can move to over N300,000, promoting investments and economic productivity.

Evidenced by the impact of fuel price fluctuations on over 5,000 respondents, the need for sustainable energy solutions is undeniable. Governmental interventions or innovations promoting energy efficiency and renewable sources can alleviate the burden of price volatility, ensuring stability for citizens and businesses alike. Also, fostering trust through transparency, accountability, and citizen engagement is vital. Rebuilding faith in governance requires demonstrating the judicious use of tax revenue and delivering effective public services.

By actively addressing these focal areas, the Nigerian government has the power to cultivate an environment that empowers citizens, improves businesses, and fosters sustainable development.


a. The data was collected in 2018 and Nigeria has experienced significant economic changes since then. For example, the fuel price when this data was collected was N 145 and in 2023, the fuel price is N 617.

b. The population sample size is small in comparison to Nigeria’s population (over 16,000 to over 200 million).


By working on this project, I have been able to improve my analytical and critical thinking skills. Working on such a large dataset for the first time taught me to pay more attention to details. I also learned patience because the large dataset took me longer to clean and adjust because my laptop was slow to respond. Additionally, I learned that using the right visualization charts can make a world of difference.


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